Humans have already created a huge garbage patch in the Pacific ocean. How big is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch? It cannot be bigger than me. You are unbelievable. Every year, we dump around 8 million tonnes of plastic waste in the oceans. Now, since plastic does not degrade easily. It keeps floating in the oceans for hundreds of years. Over time, strong winds and natural ocean currents cause this plastic to gather. In five massive garbage patches. The biggest garbage patch of them all is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch or GPGP. It is in the Pacific Ocean between Hawaii and California. According to estimations, nearly 1.8 trillion plastic pieces are floating in the GPGP. Which weigh about 90,000 tonnes. Also, some people say that the GPGP is twice the size of Texas. Environmentalists are actively trying to develop alternatives for plastic. We should also contribute and reduce its use. AumSum is going to entertain you with his 15 silly dance moves. Watch 1 move after every topic. And give it a super cool name in the comments section below. Latent heat of vaporization. Why does steam cause more severe burns than boiling water? It is because steam is jealous of boiling water. No. It is because of latent heat of vaporization. Latent heat of vaporization is the amount of heat energy required. To change unit mass of liquid into vapor at atmospheric pressure at its boiling point. Trust me. Everything just went over my head. Alright. I will explain it to you. Boiling water contains only a specific amount of heat energy required for it to boil. However, as steam is formed from boiling water, it contains heat energy of boiling water. Along with the latent heat of vaporization. Hence, as steam has more heat energy, it can cause more severe burns than boiling water. Properties of a liquid. Why is a diver able to cut through water in a swimming pool? Simple, because I taught him. No. This is because of intermolecular force. Intermolecular force is force of attraction present in between molecules of solids, liquids or gases. Now, the intermolecular forces in liquids are not very strong. This means, I am the strongest of all. Please listen. Since the intermolecular forces are not strong, the molecules of a liquid are loosely packed. And they have empty spaces in between them. As a result, the molecules can be displaced from their original position. Hence, when a diver jumps into water, its molecules get displaced from their original position. And the diver is able to cut through the water. Myopia. What causes nearsightedness? Excess staring at junk food. No. When light from an object enters our eyes. Our eye lens bends it such that the image is formed on the retina. However, in some people, this image is formed before the retina. Such defect is called nearsightedness or myopia. A person with myopia cannot see distant objects clearly. But why? Wait, I will explain. To focus image of a distant object on the retina, our eye lens becomes thin. However, in people with myopia, the lens cannot become adequately thin. Thus, forming image before the retina and making it difficult to see. Moreover, when eyeball is elongated more than normal. Distance between lens and retina increases, resulting in the formation of image before the retina. Thus, causing difficulty in seeing the distant object. Caffeine. How does coffee keep you awake? By throwing an overnight party. No. When we perform our daily activities like thinking and playing. A byproduct called adenosine is produced. Adenosine slows down the brain activity. But how? In our brain, there are adenosine receptors which are perfectly moulded for this adenosine. When the adenosine binds to these receptors, it activates them. Causing it to slow down the brain activity and thus, making us feel sleepy. However, drinking coffee keeps us awake and we do not feel sleepy. This is because coffee contains a drug called caffeine which after digestion reaches our brain. Caffeine is structurally similar to adenosine. Being similar, caffeine binds to the adenosine receptors. And thus, blocks the adenosine from binding. Hence, as adenosine does not bind, our receptors do not slow the brain activity. As a result, we remain awake. Paper cut. Why do paper cuts hurt so much? It is because paper hates us. No. We use our fingers and hands to sense our surroundings. Hence, they have more number of nociceptors than any other parts of our body. Nociceptors are pain receptors that respond to change in pressure, temperature, etc. Now, the edges of the paper are not smooth but are rough or jagged. They are like a saw. Absolutely. Hence, sometimes when we rub our hands or especially fingertips against the edges. It cuts them like a saw, activating the nociceptors. Now, as there are more nociceptors on our hands, we feel more. In addition to this, the paper cut might also have fragments of paper containing chemicals. Which may irritate the skin and thus increase the pain. Pins and needles. Why do limbs fall asleep? Because they are tired. No. It basically happens because of nerves. Through nerves, our brain communicates with our limbs. Nerves are so amazing. Yes. However, when we cross our legs or sleep on an arm for very long, we apply pressure. Causing the nerve pathways and its surrounding arteries to squeeze. Hence, the nerves do not work properly. And the arteries cannot supply required nutrients to the nerves. As a result, the signals sent by our brain do not reach the limb. Thus, we cannot move it. So, we say that our limb has fallen asleep. Also, in some situations, some of these squeezed nerves stop sending signals. While some fire hyperactively. This gives us the sensation of pins and needles. What is color blindness? A color festival. No. Color blindness or color deficiency is a vision problem. Now, our eyes have light sensitive cells called rods and cones. Can I put ice cream on these cones? You are just unbelievable. Rods are responsible for black and white vision. They do not detect color. Whereas cones detect color. There are three types of cones. One cone perceives red light, another perceives green and the third perceives blue. Together these cones help us to see the whole spectrum of colors. Now, in some cases, when one or more types of cones do not work properly. It causes color blindness. People with such deficiency have difficulty in distinguishing between certain colors or shades. For example, in red green color blindness, the apple tree may appear like this. How can we smell things? I do not have a nose. So, how will I know? At the back of our nose, there is a tissue called olfactory epithelium. It is covered with mucus. This tissue has specialized neurons called olfactory receptor neurons. There are about 40 million olfactory receptor neurons. These neurons are chemoreceptors, that is, neurons which detect chemicals. They have a cool name. Now, when any substance releases its smell or odor, the odor consists of chemicals. When we breathe in, these chemicals enter our nose. When they reach the olfactory epithelium, the chemicals get stuck in the mucus. Causing them to activate the neurons. As a result, these activated neurons send signals through the olfactory tract to the brain. Informes it about the smell. Why do we get sunburn? Because sun is jealous of my skin. No. Sunburn is a term for red and inflamed skin. It is caused by ultraviolet radiation present in sunlight. Sunlight consists of three types of ultraviolet radiation, UVA, UVB and UVC. Does it contain UVZ as well? Just listen. Our skin is made up of cells. These cells have DNA. When we are in the hot sun for very long, the UVB radiation enters into our skin cells. And starts to damage the DNA. DNA damage can lead to cancer. Thus, to reduce the risk of cancer, the damaged skin cells kill themselves. This programmed cell death is called apoptosis. Apoptosis activates the immune response. As a result, the blood flow increases to that area to heal the skin. This leads to red and inflamed skin which we call as sunburn. How do bees make honey? No idea. To make honey, the worker honeybee sucks nectar from flowers. And stores it in its honey stomach. Once the worker bee returns to the hive. It vomits the nectar into a processor honeybee’s mouth. In processor bee’s mouth and stomach, an enzyme called invertase is added to the nectar. Invertase breaks some nectar into simple sugars like glucose and fructose. Then, it vomits the partially converted nectar into another processor bee’s mouth. Who also adds more invertase, helping breakdown more nectar. This process goes on until most of the nectar is converted into simple sugars. Then the mixture of simple sugars is stored in the honeycomb. At this point, the mixture is still watery. Hence, the bees flap their wings which evaporates water. And thickens the mixture to eventually form honey. Why does our stomach growl? Because there are bears in our stomach. No. Growling sound is produced mostly due to movement of gas in the digestive tract. Especially in the intestines. Now gas can either enter or be produced in the intestines. But how? When we eat food very quickly, sometimes we swallow gas such as air along with food. Besides this, bacteria in our intestines also produce gases. Now during digestion, the muscles of our intestines contract in order to push food ahead. However, gases also get pushed along with food. Now, as our intestines are hollow tubes, such movement of gases produces growling sounds. Besides this, hunger increases growling. This is because when we are hungry, our digestive system starts preparing for next meal. Hence, it clears the remains of last meal. Causing more muscle contraction, thus producing more growling sounds. Why pop rocks pop? Because they have springs in their legs. No. Pop rocks are tiny candy crystals. Candies are usually made using sugar, water, corn syrup, various flavorings, etc. Initially, all these ingredients are mixed together. The resulting solution is heated until most of the water boils off. And we are left with a thick sticky syrup. Usually, this syrup is poured in moulds and allowed to cool and harden to make candies. However, to make pop rocks, highly pressurized carbon dioxide gas is added to the syrup. And then, it is cooled to subsequently form a hard candy. This results in the formation of small bubbles of pressurized carbon dioxide trapped inside candy. Now, when we put this candy in our mouth, our saliva dissolves the candy. As a result, the highly pressurized carbon dioxide escapes from the bubbles with a pop. How do nails grow? A nail consists of many different parts. The visible part of the nail is called nail plate. Nail plate lies on the nail bed. Can I sleep on that bed? Just listen. Matrix is the area where nail growth originates. It lies below the skin. Matrix has specialized cells which keep dividing and creating nail cells. The nail cells grow and produce a hard protein called keratin. Then, these keratin filled cells are pushed forward as more new cells form behind them. Eventually, the keratin filled cells die and flatten to form the nail plate. The hard keratin in these dead cells gives strength to the nail and makes it hard. But what is the use of these nails? Nails protect our finger tips. Moreover, by observing the condition of our nails, doctors can get clues about our overall health. Why do our fingers get wrinkly? Because they want to look like raisins. No. A popular research suggests that wrinkly fingers are a reaction of our nervous system. When our fingers are in water for a long time. Our nervous system constricts the blood vessels present in deeper layers of skin. This in turn causes the deeper layers to shrink or contract. But as the topmost layer does not shrink, it becomes loose. Thus, forming small folds or wrinkles. But why does this happen? Scientists suggest that this could be an evolutionary adaptation. Wrinkly fingers help in getting a better grip to pick up wet objects. Preventing them from slipping from our hands. Even our feet get wrinkly, helping us to walk in water without slipping.